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Films directed by Brett Morgen. Ollie's Army On the Ropes The Kid Stays in the Picture The Sweet Science Chicago 10 Truth in Motion June 17th, Crossfire Hurricane Kurt Cobain: Montage of Heck Jane Mueller concluded that Russian interference occurred in a "sweeping and systematic fashion" and that there were substantial links with the Trump campaign, but the evidence available to investigators did not establish that the Trump campaign had "conspired or coordinated" with the Russian government.
Trump and his allies repeatedly alleged that the Crossfire Hurricane investigation was opened on false pretenses for political purposes.
Horowitz , released in redacted form in December , did not find political bias in the initiation of the FBI investigation.
Boasberg , a Washington D. After working on the Ben Carson campaign as a foreign policy adviser, in early February George Papadopoulos , codenamed "Crossfire Typhoon" by the FBI,  left the Carson campaign.
Also in early February, he moved to London to begin working for the London Centre of International Law Practice LCILP , with which he was associated for several months.
On March 6, Papadopoulos accepted an offer to work with the Trump campaign. While on this trip, on March 14 he met Maltese professor Joseph Mifsud and informed the professor about his joining the Trump campaign.
Mifsud traveled to Moscow in April , and upon his return he told Papadopoulos that Russian government officials were in possession of "thousands of emails" that could be politically damaging to Hillary Clinton.
Receipt of this information spurred the FBI's launch of the Crossfire Hurricane investigation on July In late July , according to his May testimony to the House Intelligence Committee , CIA director John Brennan convened a group of officials from the CIA, NSA and FBI to investigate Russian interference.
He said this information "served as the basis for the FBI investigation to determine whether such collusion [or] cooperation occurred". In March , FBI Director James Comey confirmed in a congressional hearing that the FBI had been investigating Russian interference as part of its counterintelligence mission.
He further confirmed that the probe included links between Trump campaign members and the Russian government, and "whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts".
In February , the Nunes memo , written by staff for U. Representative Devin Nunes , stated: "The Papadopoulos information triggered the opening of an FBI counterintelligence investigation in late July by FBI agent Pete Strzok ",  rather than the Steele dossier as asserted by, among others, President Donald Trump , Nunes, and several Fox News hosts such as Tucker Carlson and Sean Hannity.
The counter-memo added that the FBI investigative team only received the Steele dossier in mid-September, "because the probe's existence was so closely held within the FBI".
In April , the House Intelligence Committee, then in Republican control, released a report on Russian interference in the election, as well as the American response to it.
The report corroborated that the FBI opened its counterintelligence probe in late July "following the receipt of derogatory information about foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos".
In June , the Office of the Inspector General released a report on its counter-investigation into the FBI's investigation of the Hillary Clinton email controversy.
This report stated: "On July 31, , just weeks after the conclusion of the Midyear investigation [into Clinton], the FBI opened its investigation of Russian interference in the ongoing presidential election [ The Mueller Report of the Special Counsel investigation , completed in March , states that the Papadopoulos information about Russia having acquired damaging material on Clinton "prompted the FBI on July 31, , to open an investigation into whether individuals associated with the Trump Campaign were coordinating with the Russian government in its interference activities".
A review of Crossfire Hurricane done by Justice Department Inspector General Michael E. Horowitz resulted in a report released in December The report stated that the following information from a Friendly Foreign Government triggered the investigation: George Papadopoulos "suggested the Trump team had received some kind of suggestion from Russia that it could assist this process with the anonymous release of information during the campaign that would be damaging to Mrs.
Clinton and President Obama. Horowitz's review also found that the FBI electronic communication opening the investigation into Papadopoulos said that Papadopoulos "made statements indicating that he is knowledgeable that the Russians made a suggestion to the Trump team that they could assist the Trump campaign with an anonymous release of information during the campaign that would be damaging to the Clinton campaign.
The "Crossfire Hurricane" codename was taken from the opening line of " Jumpin' Jack Flash ", a Rolling Stones song.
The FBI's concerns became clear after Brennan shared intelligence about Russian interference with Comey in mid-August The FBI investigation, code named Crossfire Hurricane, had a large degree of independence from inter-agency efforts to investigate Russian interference.
The report also wrote that the fusion cell itself stood down in mid-November Crossfire Hurricane initially targeted several people connected to the Trump campaign: Papadopoulos, Michael Flynn , Paul Manafort , Carter Page and Roger Stone.
FBI agents, believing Trump would lose the election, and cognizant of Trump's claims that the election was rigged against him, were careful to ensure the investigation did not become public, as they feared that if Trump lost he would blame his defeat on the revelation of the investigation.
On September 7, , U. The Office of the Inspector General's June report states that Peter Strzok, Lisa Page, "and several others from the Midyear investigation [by the FBI into Hillary Clinton] were assigned to the Russia investigation, which [the Office was] told was extremely active during this September and October  time period.
Priestap had a supervisory role over the Russia investigation during an unspecified time period. This investigation's work continued into May The FBI had surveilled Carter Page under a Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act FISA warrant beginning in or , on concerns that Russian intelligence was attempting to recruit him.
News reported on September 23, , that Page was being investigated by American intelligence for his contacts with Russian agents,  Page immediately left the Trump campaign, while two campaign spokesmen denied he had ever been a part of it.
During the summer of , the FBI applied for a warrant to conduct surveillance on four members of the Trump campaign, but this application was rejected by the FISA court as too broad.
On October 21, , the FBI filed a new FISA warrant application for Page alone, expressing the FBI's belief that the Russian government was collaborating with Page and possibly others associated with the Trump campaign,  and that Page had been the subject of targeted recruitment by Russian intelligence agencies.
The request was signed by Comey and Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates , and Judge Rosemary M. Collyer issued the warrant, concluding there was probable cause to believe Page was a foreign agent knowingly engaging in clandestine intelligence for the Russian government.
Mosman , Anne C. Conway and Raymond J. The first two extensions were signed by Comey, and the last one by his deputy Andrew McCabe after Comey was fired.
In addition, Acting Attorney General Dana Boente signed the first extension, and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein signed the last two.
Shortly after the opening of the Crossfire Hurricane investigation on July 31, , the FBI used confidential human sources CHS to conduct meetings with individuals affiliated with the Trump campaign.
The New York Times reported that agents involved in the Russia investigation asked Stefan Halper to approach Carter Page and George Papadopoulos, and it was unclear whether he had been asked to contact Sam Clovis , who was vice-chairman of the Trump campaign.
The IG report says "the Crossfire Hurricane team conducted three CHS operations prior to the team's initial receipt of Steele's reporting on September 19, ", and describes how FBI CHS "Source 2" contacted three individuals "who were still with the Trump campaign.
McCarthy in a May 12, , National Review article, and Donald Trump referred to this report in a tweet accusing the Obama administration of planting a "spy" in his campaign, thus launching the Spygate conspiracy theory.
The first FBI CHS operation  was at least four meetings between Halper and Carter Page. Page and Halper also met at a London symposium on July 11—12, , before the meetings mentioned above.
An anonymous former federal law enforcement official told The New York Times that this earlier contact was coincidental.
The second FBI CHS operation took place between "Source 2" and "a high-level official in the Trump campaign who was not a subject of the investigation" on September 1, The New York Times reported Page had urged Halper to meet with Sam Clovis, and, according to an anonymous source for the Times , the FBI was aware of the meeting but had not instructed Halper to ask Clovis about issues related to the Russia investigation.
The IG report describes two meetings between "Source 2" and Papadopoulos on September 15, a brunch meeting and a pre-dinner meeting. The New York Times reports that Halper was not alone in London; the FBI had sent a female investigator using the pseudonym Azra Turk to meet with Papadopoulos while posing as Halper's assistant.
The IG report says that, according to Crossfire Hurricane case agents, the September 15 meetings that it describes involved an attempt to recreate the conditions of an earlier meeting between Papadopoulos and an FFG Friendly Foreign Government official in which they said Papadopoulos had made comments about Russian assistance to the Trump Campaign.
During these meetings, Halper asked if Papadopoulos knew of any Russian efforts to interfere in the election; Papadopoulos said he did not.
Stuart Evans, then head of the office of intelligence at DOJ, later said the denial was material to the FISA court case. Another FBI CHS named "Source 3", "an individual with a connection to Papadopoulos", was used to interact with Papadopoulos "multiple times between October and June ".
When he was next asked whether Russia had "special interests", Papadopoulos declared: "that's all bullshit". He added that he knew "for a fact" that the Trump campaign was not involved in the DNC hack, adding that such involvement would have been illegal.
When asked if Russia had "interest in Trump", Papadopoulos replied: "no one knows how a president's going to govern anyway".
The FBI failed to include these statements in their subsequent FISA warrant applications. In his report, Horowitz included this failure as among the seventeen "inaccuracies or omissions" in the FBI's handling of the FISA warrant application.
Walid Phares under code name Cross Wind was also involved in the story. In SSCI report volume 5 on Russian interference it is mentioned that Jeffry Sessions, Donald J.
Trump have FBI investigations but codenames for them were redacted unlike other codenames that are not redacted. Steele received no compensation from the FBI for the later work he did related to the election.
The FBI initially considered him a CHS, a role in which he was told not to discuss what he found with the media.
But Steele was also working for Fusion GPS , a private firm that directed him to share his findings with the media. Steele's contact with the media alarmed the leadership at the FBI, which led them to formally end the FBI's relationship with him in November However, the FBI continued to receive information from Steele indirectly via senior Justice Department official Bruce Ohr through May In early August , he made a trip to Rome,  where he briefed four American FBI officials about some of his research, including the first memo from his dossier.
The agents also "raised the prospect of paying Steele to continue gathering intelligence after Election Day",  but Steele "ultimately never received payment from the FBI for any 'dossier'-related information".
The Inspector General's report  determined the FBI had "several other" confidential sources "with either a connection to candidate Trump or a role in the Trump campaign",    but that the FBI did not task these sources as a part of the Crossfire Hurricane investigation.
The Inspector General wrote his review "found no evidence that the FBI attempted to place any" FBI source in the Trump campaign.
It also emerged that, according to one agent, one of these FBI CHSs was a Trump supporter, as were the FBI employees who cultivated this source.
These FBI employees exchanged text messages supporting Trump in the election. On January 5, , FBI Director James Comey, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, CIA Director John Brennan, and NSA Director Mike Rogers briefed President Obama about an intelligence report on Russian interference in the election, which Obama had ordered in December.
Rice documented the meeting two weeks later, on January 20, in an email she sent just before leaving the White House for the last time.
The email also stated that Obama directed them to be "mindful to ascertain if there is any reason that we cannot share information fully as it relates to Russia" with members of the incoming administration.
On January 6, Comey, Clapper, Brennan, and Rogers briefed President-elect Trump on the intelligence report.
He later testified that the FBI leadership had discussed the assurance in advance, and that one member of the team—later revealed to be FBI General Counsel James Baker—had raised concerns about it.
In February , The New York Times published a report on Crossfire Hurricane, whose name had not been made public at the time.
Citing current and former American officials commenting anonymously on the classified investigation, The New York Times reported that communications intercepts and logs showed that Trump campaign members and Trump associates, including Paul Manafort, had "repeated contacts" with senior Russian intelligence officials "in the year before the election".
On May 8, , Trump dismissed Comey from his tenure as FBI Director. On May 17, , Rosenstein appointed Mueller as special counsel under the applicable Department of Justice regulation , and the Special Counsel investigation also known as the Mueller probe took over the Crossfire Hurricane efforts, which were still ongoing at the time.
In June , Peter Strzok , the FBI agent who had led the Crossfire Hurricane investigation up to this point, became a member of Mueller's team.
George Papadopoulos pleaded guilty on October 5, , to making false statements. Millian previously said he had "insider knowledge and direct access to the top hierarchy in Russian politics".
Flynn pleaded guilty on December 1, , to making false statements. On January 24, , Flynn had lied to FBI investigators regarding his contacts with Sergey Kislyak , the Russian Ambassador to the United States.
Manafort pleaded guilty on September 14, , to one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice for witness tampering, and one count of participating in a conspiracy against the United States.
NBC News wrote that Manafort's conspiracy charge was related to "money laundering, tax fraud, failing to file Foreign Bank Account Reports, violating the Foreign Agents Registration Act, and lying and misrepresenting to the Department of Justice".
Stone was arrested on January 25, , and charged on seven counts, including witness tampering and lying to investigators. Page was not charged with a crime by the special counsel investigation.
Its report said: "The investigation did not establish that Page coordinated with the Russian government in its efforts to interfere with the presidential election".
On March 22, , the Special Counsel investigation was concluded, and the Mueller Report was submitted that day.
The Mueller Report concluded that Russian interference in the presidential election did occur "in sweeping and systematic fashion" and "violated U.
Trump and disparaged presidential candidate Hillary Clinton",  which also sought to "provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States".
To establish whether a crime was committed by members of the Trump campaign with regard to Russian interference, the special counsel's investigators used conspiracy law , and not the concept of "collusion".
The Mueller Report found that the investigation "identified numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump campaign", that Russia "perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency" and that the Trump presidential campaign "expected it would benefit electorally" from Russian hacking efforts.
Ultimately, "the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities".
However, investigators had an incomplete picture of what had really occurred during the campaign, due to some associates of Trump campaign providing either false, incomplete or declined testimony, as well as having deleted, unsaved or encrypted communications.
As such, the Mueller Report "cannot rule out the possibility" that information then unavailable to investigators would have presented different findings.
As of May [update] , Attorney General William Barr was conducting an investigation into the origins of the FBI probe, whether surveillance was adequately predicated, potential overreach by FBI or Department of Justice DOJ leadership, and whether the Steele dossier was part of a Russian disinformation campaign.
Upon the December release of the Justice Department Inspector General's findings that the investigation was properly opened on a factual and legal basis, Barr and Durham publicly stated their belief the evidence justified opening only a preliminary rather than a full investigation and indicated they would continue to investigate.
On November 2, , the day before the presidential election, New York magazine reported that:. According to two sources familiar with the probe, there has been no evidence found, after 18 months of investigation, to support Barr's claims that Trump was targeted by politically biased Obama officials to prevent his election.
The probe remains ongoing. In fact, the sources said, the Durham investigation has so far uncovered no evidence of any wrongdoing by Biden or Barack Obama, or that they were even involved with the Russia investigation.
There 'was no evidence … not even remotely … indicating Obama or Biden did anything wrong,' as one person put it. On December 1, , Attorney General Barr revealed to the Associated Press that on October 19, , he had appointed Durham to be a Special Counsel pursuant to the federal statute that governed such appointments.
Durham's investigation, according to Barr's statement to the Associated Press and the Attorney General's order appointing Durham as special counsel, was to examine whether "any federal official, employee, or any other person or entity violated the law in connection with the intelligence, counter-intelligence, or law-enforcement activities directed at the presidential campaigns, individuals associated with those campaigns, and individuals associated with the administration of President Donald J.
Trump, including but not limited to Crossfire Hurricane and the investigation of Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller III. In March , the Justice Department's Inspector General , Michael E.
Horowitz , announced that the Office of Inspector General OIG had opened a review of the origins of the FBI's Russia investigation, the informants used, and the process followed to authorize surveillance of Carter Page ,   a foreign policy adviser on the Trump campaign.
On December 9, , Horowitz released his report on the findings of the DOJ OIG investigation. The OIG found no indication that the investigation of Trump and Russia was motivated by political bias, but did make 17 "basic and fundamental" errors and omissions in its warrant applications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court FISA to surveil Carter Page, a foreign policy adviser on the Trump campaign.
The actions of FBI agents were not up to the standards of the FBI. The report debunked claims, promoted by Trump and his allies, that the Steele dossier had prompted the Russia investigation, and reiterated that the FBI investigation had in fact started in late July , based on a tip from Australian officials regarding Trump campaign adviser George Papadopoulos.
FBI Director Christopher A. Wray said he accepted the OIG's findings and had "ordered more than 40 corrective steps to address the Report's recommendations", and added it was "important that the inspector general found that, in this particular instance, the investigation was opened with appropriate predication and authorization".
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Main article: United States v. Main article: Trump—Ukraine scandal. See also: Steele dossier. Main article: Criminal charges brought in the Special Counsel investigation — See also: Inspector General report on the Crossfire Hurricane investigation.Crossfire Hurricane is a documentary film about The Rolling Stones written and directed by Brett Morgen. The film chronicles the early years of the band through to The film is a series of interviews conducted without cameras, while showing various points of interest that the band is discussing as archival footage. Crossfire Hurricane was the code name for the FBI investigation into alleged ties between the Trump campaign and Russian officials. The Special Counsel’s famed “Mueller report” later found that the. Crossfire Hurricane was the code name for the counterintelligence investigation undertaken by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 20into links between Trump associates and Russian officials and "whether individuals associated with Donald Trump 's presidential campaign were coordinating, wittingly or unwittingly, with the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the U.S. presidential election ". Just hours before leaving the White House, President Donald Trump declassified documents related to Operation Crossfire Hurricane, the FBI's investigation into Trump campaign officials during the. Crossfire Hurricane was the FBI's investigation into allegations that Donald Trump's campaign conspired with Russia to interfere in the election. The probe was later turned over to Special.